AMERICAN FEDERATION OF MINERALOGICAL SOCIETIES
Volume 56, Number 8
IN THIS ISSUE
from George Loud, Conservation & Legislation Chair
August 1, 2003
We all need to do some fast letter writing. Let me remind my mineral collecting friends who do not seem to be disposed to concerning themselves with rights to collect fossils, that the relevant agency rules lump minerals, rocks and invertebrate fossils together in their regulations.
The Senate companion bill to H.R. 2416 has already passed the Senate (S546). Here's what Washington Watch had to say about S546: "Bad Bills S546 - Anti-rockhounding bill titled the 'Paleontological Resources Preservation Act" places severe penalties on recreational rockhounding, would permit only "experts" to disturb public land surfaces. Allows for seizure of private vehicles, camping equipment and anything else the government wants to grab for even minor violations. This bill assumes that big brother government has all the answers, even though some of the greatest discoveries of dinosaurs in pre-recorded history has been done by private individuals."
Frankly, I was surprised that the forfeiture provision for seizure of vehicle and property of the malfeasor is also provided for in the House bill H.R. 2416 even if the violation is characterized as a "civil penalty", i.e., does not rise to the level of a crime (misdemeanor or felony). The forfeiture provision would put erring fossil collectors in the same peril as drug dealers.
What else is wrong with H.R. 2416? Answer: a lot.
In Section 15 of the bill entitled "Saving Provisions", Provision 3 specifies that the bill does not apply to amateur collecting of a rock, mineral or invertebrate or plant fossil that is not protected under this act." Yes, I know that this provision is no worse that the current BLM and Forest Service regulations which prohibit the collecting of vertebrate fossils. However, I would not like to see the vertebrate-invertebrate distinction codified by federal statute. As I have explained at length in previous columns, the little fossil collecting experience I have had has been mostly directed to vertebrate fossils, none of which were sufficiently unique or valuable to warrant special protection under the law.
I would like to challenge lawmakers to pick a vertebrate fossil I own (a rounded hunk of agatized bone) from among a group of rocks. At the minimum, they would have great difficulty. Yet this bill demands such skill of their constituents.
Section 9 "Prohibited Acts; Penalties -(B) False Labeling Offenses" provides "a person may not make or submit any false label or counter label for or any false identification of any paleontological resource excavated or removed from Federal lands." As I previously wrote, "pity the poor collector or curator, amateur or professional, who mistakes a psittacosaurus bone for a chasmosaurus bone." Such misidentification can make a criminal out of you. Thank god I only collect minerals which I all too often misidentify. On the bright side, this provision has the potential for placing all those pesky SVP members behind bars and thus out of our hair.
Another objection is that you would be prohibited from selling or exchanging fossils which you legally collect from Federal lands, e.g., a surface collected invertebrate or plant fossil. See Section 9(3). Why should fossils be different from minerals, gold nuggets, coins, etc., found on public lands?
Please immediately write your Congressman at:
Those Pesky Solicitors
Several nights ago I answered a knock at the front door of our home in Vienna, Virginia to find a beautiful young blond female on our threshold. Many years ago this would be the occasion of no small amount of excitement but not so now, especially so since my wife Karen beat me to the door. The young lady was soliciting memberships in some environmental group. I explained that I was opposed to some of what is being done in the name of environmentalism giving the example of road closures on public lands which restricted my access to rock collecting sites. The young lady assured me that her organization was only interested in suppressing particulate emissions from stack gases of coal-fired power generating plants. I was a definite no sale, but in departing she left a brochure. In the first paragraph of that brochure I learned that the organization she represented took great pride in the "roadless rules" put into place during the Clinton administration. What her organization regarded as its major accomplishment was precisely what I had complained of. Be careful what you buy.
New E-Mail Address:
Please note my new e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Even if you or your members are not collectors of fossils, encourage each of your club members to write letters to their respective Representatives TODAY! (Perhaps you could take a moment to have members sign preprinted letters which the club then mails. Petitions are NOT useful as they normally only count as one "vote". Letters should be placed in individual envelopes or e-mailed separately.) Today the proposed legislation is about fossil collecting. It appears obvious what the next step will be for rock and mineral collectors.
Our rockhounding community did not sit idly by during the Congressional debate over the "Baucus Bill" several years ago and through our letter writing campaign that assault on our collecting rights was defeated. Let's muster another flurry of letters now so that this bill too will be defeated. The right of each of us and of future generations to collect freely is at stake.
from Bob Cranston
Here are the members of the Agriculture and Resources Committees of the 108th Congress. If one of your states representatives is on the committee, be sure to send a copy of your letter to him. Also be sure to send a copy to the committee chair.
House Agriculture Committee
House Committee on Resources
Ron Carman, AFMS President
To me, the CFMS/AFMS show in Ventura was a great success. My compliments to the Del Air Rockhounds for an excellent job. The facilities were good and there were always some knowledgeable club members around in case I needed help. (which happened all too often!) The meals were also good, and the host club also conveniently had coffee and refreshments for us in the meeting room and for the hardworking judges. I had the pleasure of helping judge some of the exhibits on Friday, and on Saturday at the banquet I was delighted when I could present some AFMS trophies to the fine exhibits I had seen earlier. For me, that has always been the high point of any show, especially a Federation show. I even had the opportunity to do a little field collecting on the Monday before the convention, and found a few specimens of lepidolite with pink tourmaline crystals worth keeping.
Now I'm looking forward to next year's AFMS show in Syracuse and then the following Year in St. Louis. It's gratifying to see clubs offering to host these shows. I know there is a certain reluctance among members when the question of hosting a regional or AFMS show arises. Yes, it involves work and expense over and above the effort of producing the normal annual show, but with proper management and planning it can be done without losing money. I have seen shows held in a great variety of places, from fancy convention halls to fairgrounds buildings (which often work out quite well), even a local high school! The most important items are the will to get the job done and, of course, enough willing members to do the work. When planning a show of this magnitude, of course, you need to make a list of all the events and items to be accomplished, and make sure there are enough persons on the committee so every item is covered. Show committee meetings should occur periodically and progress on all aspects should be reviewed at each meeting, to ensure that nothing goes forgotten.
Since I am now retired, you would think I find more time on my hands than before, but somehow it doesn't always work out that way. My first week in retirement was spent at the Ventura show, and since we are planning a new house in Texas Hill Country, we have much to keep us occupied. I haven't been able to travel as much as I would like, since we need to keep up with the new house construction. I do plan to visit the Midwest Federation show in Minnesota and will probably report on that next time. Maybe I will even have the chance to do some more field collecting - my number one interest in this hobby.
Till the next time, I hope everyone has a safe and productive summer!
Marve Starbuck, AFMS President-elect
Those of you that weren't able to make it to Ventura missed a great show. The weather wasn't the greatest ... we were there 5 days, the sun never shown, the fog never burned off the ocean, and the temperature never got above 55 degrees ... so much for sunny California! Thursday's weather called for fleece jackets!
We made it home in time to mow the lawn, do three weeks worth of laundry, then headed south to Bloomington, Indiana for the 38th Annual Swap. We lucked out on the weather this year, it is either hotter'n a pistol, or raining hard ... this year it was ideal. We got home again in time to mow the lawn, do laundry, do a few things, tidy up a few things (like weeds in the flower gardens), and in a few days, we will head for the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and become 'Yoopers'. While there, we will attend the Ishpeming Swap, then move on up to Houghton/Hancock for an activity filled week. If you have never been there, you really should put the Ishpeming Swap and "Keweenaw Week" on your calendar .. the first week of August. You start with the Ishpeming Swap (field trips involved Friday, swap Saturday, field trip Sunday), then later on Sunday move up to Houghton/Hancock .. 26 field trips, speakers, and fun things to do. From there, we will leave in time to move over to Cottage Grove, Minnesota (Minneapolis/St. Paul area), for the Midwest Federation Show and Convention. As my wife Kitty is President of the Midwest, it will be the highlight of our year.
I have been in the process of lining up Committee Chairs for next year. The listing will be in the AFMS Newsletter in the near future.
In closing, I am going to give you a sneak preview of upcoming events. Communications are going to be highlighted ... that means starting with you, the Committee Chair, Read your Operations Procedure Manual and By-laws, so you know what you are supposed to do, and when you are supposed to do it.
Also, the Scholarship Fund is going to need every bit of promotion and attention it can get. We need to send a message to ALL clubs, that the Scholarship Fund is alive and well, but it NEEDS YOUR SUPPORT.
Because Jon Spunaugle the President of both the Scholarship Foundation and ALAA needed to spend all of his attention this past year on the Scholarship debacle, ALAA didn't get the attention it needed. So this year, ALAA, with Jon Spunaugle as President, and the Scholarship Foundation with Dee Holland as President, will need everyones support. PLEASE BE THERE, WE NEED EVERYONES HELP.
by Steve Weinberger, AFMS Immediate Past President
Over the years many individuals have contributed time and effort to the AFMS and its many endeavors. As chairman of the Past President's Advisory Committee, I felt that some form of recognition should be given to these individuals other than the customary "thank you" letter at the end of each President's term of office. I contacted the AFMS Past Presidents who are still active in the Federation and received an overwhelming "absolutely, let's do it" from them all.
Nominations were solicited from these past presidents and a selection committee consisting of the most recent three past presidents formed. The name of the first recipient of this new annual award was announced at the Awards Banquet at Ventura on June 7, 2003. Unfortunately, the recipient was not in attendance.
Since we drove to Ventura we decided to make a detour on our way home and present the award citation personally. What a treat it was for us to visit with this dynamic lady and to watch her astonishment as I read the citation which accompanies the plaque given her. The citation reads:
The recipient of this year's AFMS Recognition Award is well-known to hobbyists and professionals throughout the country. She and her husband began collecting specimens from all over the U.S. during the 1940's. She has authored 9 books on gems and minerals and has contributed many articles to magazines, most notably Lapidary Journal, where she began her association in 1956.
She served as president of the Midwest Federation and has presented many programs at the AFMS and regional federation shows throughout the country. Her AFMS positions included director, chairing the Club Publications, Awards, and Public Relations Committees. She instituted the first AFMS Bulletin Contest in 1967 and has written extensively to promote the AFMS and continues to judge club bulletins.
Her initiative began the state rock and gem program in which most states now participate. In 1972 she directed a project for clubs in all states to cut cabochons and send them to the Smithsonian Institution for the AFMS 25th Anniversary. These cabs were used in a pin and to decorate a large layered cake at the Smithsonian, and our recipient served as hostess for the ceremony.
She started the National Rockhound and Lapidary Hall of Fame in Murdo, South Dakota and contributed her family's collection to the Museum.
Our recipient has been a gracious and active promoter of the AFMS and our hobby for more than forty years, and we are pleased to present the AFMS Recognition Award to...
June Culp Zeitner
I don't know how to thank you for the unexpected and great honor! When the Weinbergers stopped to see me I was delighted to have a chance for a good visit about hobby related concerns, so the letter Steve read absolutely stunned me!
The AFMS (and its member Federations) have been important to me ever since my friend Ben Hur Wilson told me about it at a time when Al and I and his Dad thought we were the only rockhounds in South Dakota back in the tiny town of Mission in 1947.
The aims or "Mission" of the AFMS are valuable and far-reaching for the whole country, but my greatest joy has been meeting and working with the outstanding people who are keeping our hobby alive and well by achieving our goals. Sciences and arts have all benefited from the Federation's primary purposes - such as education.
At almost 88 I admit I have slowed down quite a bit, so I haven't been able to do everything I wanted to, so the plaque you have awarded me is incredibly precious. Thank you. Thank you. THANK YOU!
By Jim Brace-Thompson, Junior Activities Chair
This month, I offer thanks to members of the Del Air Rockhounds with an overview of their kids' activities at the 2003 AFMS/CFMS Show as an example to future Show committees. Anyone who visited the Seaside Gemboree in Ventura, California, would agree: Maxine and Keri Dearborn, Patti Tostenson, and other dedicated Del Air members did a superb job! They began by forming a kids' activities committee that faced a decision early on: how to engage the maximum number of kids in the face of a limited number of volunteers. Rather than try to run a large number of individual activities, they decided to focus on interactive educational displays that could still engage kids while requiring minimal supervision. From that decision evolved the ideas of a "Dino Hall" and the "Educational Tour."
Dino Hall was an entire room dedicated to one aspect of earth sciences that represents a surefire way to capture kids' attention: dinosaurs! A large banner announced "Dino Hall" with a mural of a huge dino eye peering through foliage. Inside, kids found displays of dino footprints, bones, eggs, and other fossils, the centerpiece being a huge metal frame of a triceratops skeleton with actual bones from a triceratops attached. Paleontologist Marcus Erickson provided the dinosaur and gave a talk, "Digging for Dinosaurs" at several times during the Show. This proved to be a shrewd marketing decision in that a photo of Erickson's triceratops appeared in a 2 page article in the local newspaper leading up to the show. At other spots in Dino Hall, kids found a table with replicas of dinosaur skulls and bones, as well as displays of local fossils. One corner was dedicated to fossils of Shark Tooth Hill near Bakersfield, California and volunteers from the Buena Vista Museum of Natural History exhibited techniques of fossil cleaning.
While most Dino Hall displays were behind glass or roped off, others encouraged interactivity. Kids could stroke a real dino bone, and a crossword puzzle ("A Stroll Through Dinosaur Hall") could be completed while in the hall. Outside, a "Dinosaur Discovery Pit" tied into Erickson's triceratops. For $2.00, kids had a choice of 2 activities. In 4 "excavation boxes," kids armed with brushes could sift through sand to find and keep a real fragment of triceratops bone. A nearby table offered an activity with 4 sets of screens and buckets of lag collected from Erickson's triceratops dig site. Kids could screen through the lag to build their own collection of tiny fossils: bits of bone, teeth, etc.
The "Educational Tour" began in the main exhibit hall. When you entered, you were greeted by the California state fossil, mineral, gemstone, and rock. That display had a number, and as you looked around, you noticed numbers on selected display cases and tables throughout the hall. One numbered table was filled with huge chunks of sandstone, obsidian, granite, petrified wood, and other rocky wonders. Each of these big specimens was flanked by a "What Is It?" card taped to the table. Kids were encouraged to touch-and-feel specimens before flipping up the card for the answer.
In addition to the Touch-and-Feel Table, another number marked a hands-on display of the Moh's scale. Kids could read about the scale, pick a rock, and try it on the spot. Nearby tables constructed by the L.A. Natural History Museum offered kids a chance to match mineral specimens with associated products, e.g., fluorite/toothpaste, gypsum/wallboard, etc. Bells and buzzers sounded when kids made a correct match. They also had a "Careers in the Geosciences" handout downloaded from the American Geological Institute web site (www.earthscienceworld.org/careers/brochure).
The stations I've described were just 4 of 14 stations on an "Educational Tour" spanning all aspects of rocks, minerals, fossils, and lapidary arts. Three additional stations constructed by club members and kids illustrated igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks and processes of their formation. These were large, some six feet tall. The igneous station was a replica of a volcano. Questions were posted on the side of the volcano, and kids could open small doors to view answers in the form of specimens of obsidian, granite, basalt, etc. Additional stations on lapidary arts, fossils, the formation of petrified wood, etc., were in numbered cases assembled by Keri Dearborn and Michael Lawshe and interspersed among the noncompetitive exhibits throughout the hall.
A big part of pursuing the educational theme involved outreach to local youth groups and, in particular, scouting groups. All the stations numbered on color-coded cards were matched to Webelo, Boy Scout, and Girl Scout merit badge requirements. Enough stations were set up to enable Scouts to go through all requirements for the entire badge. A "Webelo Scout Geology Badge Worksheet" offered a 3-page step-by-step guide covering mineral identification, the Moh's scale, everyday uses of rocks and minerals, rock types, fossils, and career opportunities in geology. A Boy Scout "Geology Merit Badge Requirement" handout consisted of an 11-page packet. The opening page outlined all 13 requirements to earn the badge, followed by each requirement in turn, with space for filling in answers. To help scouts start a rock collection, each scout went home with a bag of assorted rocks. Scout leaders also got packets with step-by-step project ideas, field trips, jewelry projects, etc.
Two other sheets were available at the entrance to the exhibit hall and tied to the numbered exhibits. "California Geology Scavenger Hunt" was a sheet with 14 questions to complete. (Name the California state mineral, rock, gemstone, and fossil. Name 4 California fossils. What are 3 minerals you use in everyday life and how are they used? Etc.) "A Day at the Rock & Gem Show" crossword puzzle highlighted some of the special displays that were brought in (for instance a cast made in sand from a lightning strike, the "Old Woman" meteorite, etc.). These were tied to the earth science curriculum of the local school district.
In addition to Dino Hall and the Educational Tour, as you moved into other buildings on the fairgrounds you encountered still more activities tailored toward kids. A special kids-only table was set up at the silent auction area. Diamond Pacific had several machines staffed by adults to assist kids in crafting and polishing a cab of their own to take home. A mock-up of a Mars Rover tied into the meteor theme of the show, allowing kids to sit at computer terminals and control the movements of a tiny rover tumbling over a mock-up of the Martian surface. Everywhere you turned there was something fun to do, something interesting to learn.
If you don't have a lot of manpower to handle large numbers of individual kids activities, the Del Air Rockhounds have proven there are still ways to capture kids' attention, build in interactivity, and-as always-have fun!
from the Del Air Rockhounds
With a swish of the Mermaid's tail, the 2003 Seaside Gemboree has come and gone. The Del Air Rockhounds would like to thank all of the clubs and individuals who participated and visited the combined AFMS/CFMS show. Everyone's enthusiasm helped to make the event a success. We would also like to extend a "SPECIAL THANK YOU" to CFMS representatives Bob and Jeane Stultz, Cal Clason, and Ray Meisenheimer for their energy and commitment to the show.
We were very pleased to have 51 competitive exhibit cases, 143 noncompetitive guest exhibit cases, and 14 special large exhibits, for a total of 208. There were demonstrations on everything from flintknapping to silverwork, rock carving, faceting, sculpting and fossil cleaning to driving Mars Rovers. Volunteers helped children and adults dig for dinosaur bone and taught them to grind and polish cabs thanks to equipment provided by Diamond Pacific Tool Corp. We had many Boy and Girl Scouts attending and many earned their Geology Badge through our Youth Education Committee.
The Mermaid Contest brought 13 varied entries which were voted on by approximately 600 visitors. We congratulate Jennifer Rhodes of Reno, Nevada for winning the $75 gift certificate with her mermaid pendant made of a "lampwork bead and wire wrap." Second and Third place went to Eugene Haider's inlay fine-silver bola and Paul Patterson's gold mermaid with black pearl, respectively. All of the entries were individual works of art. The Display Committee thanks all of the entrants for their creativity and skill.
Our Silent Auction had a special drawing for a large piece of Australian Fire Opal for its participants and the lucky winner was Jack Rhodes of Reno, Nevada, yes the husband of the above Jennifer Rhodes of Mermaid fame and of the Reno Gem and Mineral Society. There were hundreds of pounds of rock and thousands of plants for sale at our Mermaid Grotto and we want to Thank you all for taking many of them home with you.
We hope everyone had an enjoyable time at the show and encourage you all to support the efforts of the club working on the 2004 show.
by Bill Buckner, AFMS Safety Chair
Accidents don't just happen they are caused. There are three major elements in the transportation system. 1. The driver, 2. The vehicle, and 3. The road. All three are important. Most accidents relate to the driver.
The poor or careless driver may not care for the vehicle he/she drives, may not observe traffic laws, and has little or no respect for the rights or safety of others. As a result of poor driving habits there are countless "accidents" counted every year.
We need to keep our vehicles in good condition. This includes adequate tires with correct pressure and aligned wheels, regular service to the motor, and adequate gasoline in the car. We recently went on a vacation to North Carolina and spent part of one day on Grandfather Mountain. While there we saw a family in an SUV. They were near the top of the mountain and out of gas. They were talking about coasting down the mountain until someone reminded them that they had both power steering and power brakes. Neither would work very well without the motor running.
We ourselves need to be in shape to drive or let someone who is in shape drive. To be in shape takes several things into consideration: 1. Vision, which includes peripheral vision, judging distance and speed, and night vision. 2. Hearing, horns, sirens, or screeching tires can warn you of danger. With adequate use of mirrors and being careful this can be taken care of. 3. Fatigue, try to get rest and sleep before you travel. Eat lightly. Most people get sleepy after a big meal. Take breaks ever hour or two. Try not to drive late at night when you usually sleep. Never drive when you are sleepy. Be especially careful not to drive if you are taking medications that make you drowsy or dizzy. 4. Health, if you are feeling bad and need to go somewhere let some else drive. Some diseases cause concern. Epilepsy, diabetes, heart conditions, high blood pressure, or circulation problems that can cause blackouts can be a problem. With any of the above conditions keep regular contact with your doctor and take recommended medication. Carefully note the side effects of any medications. 5. Emotions, if angry or excited, give yourself time to cool off. If worried or upset about something, try to keep your mind on your driving. If you are impatient, start your trip earlier.
Never drive around a lowered gate at a railroad crossing or try to outrun a train.
On hot days or on any days, please do not leave a child [or pet] unattended in an automobile. Hot days can kill children [or pets] and automobile robbery and/or car-jacking can take children as well as cars. Also some children can manage to get cars out of gear and cause accidents. Children are very important, remember to protect them.
Enjoy life and help others to be safe enough to enjoy life.
from Pat LaRue, AFMS Uniform Rules Chair
I'm pleased to share with you the names of the trophy recipients at the just concluded AFMS Convention in Ventura, California. Each of these individuals earned a score above 90 and were the best in the class in which they entered. Congratulations to all. Maybe your name will appear here next year after the 2004 Convention in Syracuse, NY.
There were 33 competitive exhibits which qualified for judging at the AFMS level. Although the majority of the exhibits had earned the right to compete at this level at a prior regional show, 14 of the entries qualified for the first time this year. It was my pleasure to present a total of 15 trophies to the top scoring displays in their respective categories.
Another honor given in conjunction with the AFMS competition is the Lillian Turner award which is presented to the best junior display in competition. This years winner was Joy Robertson of Glendora Gems (CFMS). In addition to a $100 savings bond, Joy was presented with a mineral specimen donated by the late Charles Leach.
from Frank DeCaminada, AFMS Chair
The All American Club Awards program was a great success this year, thanks to five Regional Federation Committee Chairpersons who coordinated the submittal of a total of fourteen entries for comparative evaluation to determine which Club/Society is one of the best in the American Federation of Mineralogical Societies.
Entrants were separated for judging into two groups - large clubs (those with 100 or more members) and small clubs (those with less than 100 members). There were five entries from the South Central Federation; three from California; one from Rocky Mountain; one from Eastern and four from the Midwest. Unfortunately there were no entries this year from the Southeast for Nortwest Federations.
Awards were handed out to all entrants at the AFMS Awards Banquet in Ventura, California on June 7, 2003. The awards presented were as follows:
Note that the South Central Federation and the Midest Federation each received two (2) gold medals and the Midwest Federation also received two (2) silver medals. Top awards which included an All American Trophy were presented to the Northwest Wisconsin Gem & Mineral Society for highest scoring small club and to the Austin Gem & Mineral Society for highest scoring large club.
Information on how your club or society can have a successful entry in next year's 2004 All American Club Awards Program will appear in future issues of the AFMS Newsletter. Remember that the period of performance will be for the calendar year 2003.
from Bonnie Glismann Eastern Federation
Here is another group of honorees to share with you. Each has been nominated by either his club or an individual within the club for recognition. I'm proud of them all and congratulate them for being honored by their club members.
How about selecting someone from your club? The process is an easy one - just pick an individual or couple in your club that you would like to tell us about. Let us know in about 50 words how valuable this person (or couple) is to your club and send it to your regional federation AFMS Club Rockhound representative. You can find their name and address on the AFMS website or in your regional federation's directory of member clubs.
We still have a few months left in 2003 for you to honor someone. Wouldn't it be wonderful if every club selected that one special person this year? What an easy and memorable way to say "thank you for all you do".
Dave Ballard has been nominated by the Micromineralogists of the National Capital Area as the AFMS Club Rockhound of the Year. He has been a faithful attendee at club meetings, has handled the sale of tools, mineral tac and corks for many years and is our chief electrician at our annual micromount conference.
nominated by Paul Smith, president
I would like to nominate Arnold Lambert of the Dothan Gem & Mineral Club, Dothan, Alabama as the AFMS Club Rockhound of the Year. When our club lost its meeting place a few years ago, Arnie and his wife Joan opened their home as a meeting place. He converted his garage into a workshop with lapidary equipment, tumblers, etc. He teaches cabbing, use of lapidary equipment and rock identification to club members and visitors. He converted the carport to a mini museum with display cases, which he built on all walls. He even has a small area for micros and a microscope and a dark room with fluorescent specimens and black lights. Arnie has served as Program Chairman, Field Trip Chairman, Vice President and President. Through his use of digital photography, computer CDs and a very large TV screen, he has presented valuable programs on crystals and minerals of his collection to club members, school children and church members. He has also put displays in local libraries and businesses. With his wife, he goes to schools to present programs to Earth Science classes and gives specimens to the students. Perhaps one day, some of these children will become "rockhounds" and further this great hobby!
nominated by Grady L. Dunn, president
The Nassau Mineral Club has selected Murray Fein as the AFMS Club Rockhound of the Year for 2003. Murray joined the club in 1957 and has been an active member ever since. He has served as President, Vice President of Programs, Field Trip Captain and Lapidary Instructor. Murray is a Fellow of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain. He is available almost every Saturday at the club's workshop to identify minerals and gemstones as well as to demonstrate/instruct the use of gem identification equipment. He is also a frequent speaker at the club's general meetings.
Submitted by Madelyn Todd, Nassau Mineral Club
The Chesapeake Gem & Mineral Society is pleased to honor Lynne Luger as its Rockhound of the Year. Lynne served as president for 8 terms, is currently assistant show chairman, chair of the telephone squad and is a member of the Board of Directors. During her years as president she has been the sparkplug which re-energized the group. Under her leadership, meetings became more interesting as she encouraged program chairman to bring in a wide variety of speakers; more members have become involved in club activities and the group has been kept apprised of and encouraged to become involved with pending legislative issues. The Chesapeake club is honored to have such an involved and dedicated member in our midst.
nominated by Carolyn & Steve Weinberger
Ed and Susan Fisher have earned the right to be honored as the AFMS Club Rockhounds of the Year for the Mineralogical Society of the District of Columbia. Ed has served as president for several years and is currently also the archivist. Susan has been on the board of directors for many years. They make generous contributions of minerals for the monthly auctions, and for the last couple of years they have hosted the annual holiday party at their home. For the club's 60th anniversary, the Fishers again hosted the celebration. Ed also enjoys sharing his mineral collecting stories in the club bulletin. This couple's dedication and enthusiasm have contributed much to keeping the club going.
nominated by Bruce & Cathy Gaber
Al Pribula is this years choice as the Baltimore Mineral Society's "Rockhound of the Year". Al is an active member of the Society and a serious collector of minerals. He has devoted much of his energy and ability to enhance the organization. He has served as president, and has held numerous other offices for BMS. His most recent contribution, spanning the last few years, has been organizing and disposing of the collection of the late Herb Corbett, a BMS member who donated most of his minerals to the club. Al has taken much of his free time to sort out the material, bring it to the annual micromount symposium for "give-aways" and auctions and then conduct those activities. He's also hosted numerous meetings at his home, given programs, and set up demonstrations at local shows. If something needs doing, we know that Al will help us get it done. We are very fortunate to have Al Pribula as our member.
On behalf of the Lubbock Gem and Mineral Society, I am pleased to enter the name of Don Pendley for the 2003 Rockhound of the year. When we go each fall to the South Plains Fair we have a game similar to Wheel of Fortune. We give out about 600 pounds of polished stones to our children. It would not be possible if not for Don's ingenuity in building tumblers of a large capacity. He is modest, slow to accept any compensation for his work, fronts for us to keep necessary supplies. All in all, he just is an all-round good guy.
Submitted by: Ray Tyler
The West Seattle Rock Club nominate David Clausen as their 2003 Rockhound of the Year. David joined the club in 1989 and soon became vice-president, field trip chairman, state mineral council delegate and ultimately President. He served in that capacity seven times. He also was Show Chairman, Dealer Chair and served in a number of other show related duties along the way. He is young, works full time and has opened his "rockin' house" and garden for club meetings and summer picnics. Of course it isn't just the positions he has held and the work that he does for club, but his cheerful and ready willingness to share his knowledge at club meetings, workshops, field trips, etc. that make him our Rockhound of the year.
Submitted by: West Seattle Rock Club
The Far West Lapidary and Gem Society, Inc. #506 nominate members Bob and Maxine MacManima as their 2003 Rockhounds of the year. They have been leaders in our club for 22 years. Bob has been president 7 times, Representative to Oregon Council, Show Chairman and for over 20 years in charge of workshop and helps as a judging instructor. Maxine has been Secretary 10 times, supervised snack bar and been the club's Spiritual Force.
Submitted by Fred Noah, Jr.: President
The Yakima Rock and Mineral Club nominate Jake A. Friedt as their 2003 Rockhound of the Year. He has shown exemplary service for many years. He has served on most of the executive positions as well as serving on most of the various committees. Mr. Friedt has shown exceptional merit in being Show Construction Chairman, providing his time, energy and finances to see that the annual show is a great success. He also is highly involved with the club's annual participation in the Central Washington State Fair. Mr. Friedt is most deserving of this honor.
Submitted by: Howard S. Walter Jr.
The Marysville Rock and Gem Club nominates Ed Lehman as their 2003 Rockhound of the Year. Active in rock collecting since the age of seven and joined the Marysville Rock and Gem Club when he was 30. He served as Field Trip Chairman for 20 years, Federation Director for three years and Secretary and President for two years. He co-founder of the Wagonmasters and served as chairman. He served as Director to the Washington State Mineral Council and also served as secretary, 2nd vice-president, vice-president and president. At the combined American and Northwest Federation 2002 Show, in Port Townsend, Ed displayed 16 feet of rough and polish Northwest Material. He won the Rodney "Rod" Smith Memorial trophy for best Northwest material. He works with 4-H clubs, talks to pre-school, high school, and Boy Scouts. He helps to keep our collecting rights open at the Walker Valley lease, has done a computer CD about "Rocks and Mineral Locations in WA. He has donated to the Rice Museum. He enjoys rockhounding, leather craft, fishing, fly tying, tropical fish breeding and computer repair.
Submitted by: Darlene Postuma, Past Federation Director
The Rock River Valley Gem & Mineral Society of Rockford, Illinois, nominates Nancy Cencula, Rockhound of the Year for 2003. Nancy joined our club about 4 years ago. She was not a "club" person, but succumbed to the magic of rocks. At first Nancy was quiet and shy, but with gentle encouragement she started helping out at our annual show. From there she introduced the club to suiseki, the art of stone viewing. Her excitement was contagious as the club members hunted for rocks with the likeness of landscapes, animals, people, or abstract. At our show the following year, the club exhibited 20 unique, thought provoking suiseki. Finally, Nancy became program chairman. Each month the club experienced a carefully planned program. Now Nancy and her family are moving out-of-state. We will miss her thoughtfulness, efficiency, and enthusiasm. She was a great "club" member.
Submitted by Mary Gahl for the club.
The Lawrence County Rock Club, Bedford, Indiana would like to honor Margaret Kahrs as our AFMS Rockhound of the Year for 2003. Margaret is a lifelong rock and fossil collector. She has guided many groups on fossil and mineral field trips, spoke to school classes from first grade through high school each year since 1967, guided youngsters on field trips helped 4-H members with County Fair Exhibits, instructed adult study classes on fossils in 1978 and 1993, set up displays in libraries, given programs on fossils and rocks to numerous civic organizations, helped people identify rocks and fossils at the Falls of the Ohio State Park Interpretative Center, identified fossils for the Indiana State Museum, has donated fossils to the Indiana State Museum, University of Arkansas, University of Missouri, University of Oregon, Augustina College, University of Indianapolis, Indiana University, Cleveland, Ohio Wade Oval Museum. Margaret organized the Indiana Society of Paleontology and served as its first president. She is now the secretary - treasurer. She has found several unknown and undescribed brachiopods. One has been named for her: Divachonella Kahrsi. She has served as chairman of the Lawrence County Rock Clubs Annual Show / Swap at Bloomington, Indian since 1991. She is the Indiana State Director of the Midwest Federation. She is a member of the Mid-America Paleontology Society and was the Expo Digest Editor from 1991 through 2001.
George Aldred, President Lawrence County Rock Club
The Neville Public Museum Geology club has chosen Randy and Sandra Phillips as Rock Hound Couple of the Year 2003. Randy has been a science teacher in the Green Bay School District for several years. Sandra is helping to raise a family with him. As members of the Neville Public Museum Geology Club since about 1984 they have served in several capacities with the Club. They have been editors of the Rock Tablet Newsletter for the Club since 1989. Randy has served as Secretary of the Club and Field Trip and Bus Trip Chairpersons several times. He rarely misses Artifact ID at the Museum, identifying rocks people bring in. He also serves as the Club delegate at times to the Midwest Federation, and has served as Midwest Federation Merit Awards Chairman in the past. He has been helpful on several occasions when someone not familiar with rock hounding or equipment. We are very lucky to have such knowledgeable and helpful people in our Club.
Daniel Tumpach, club president
The Flatirons Mineral Club of Boulder, Colorado has selected Paul and Martha Ralston as our club's 2003 Rockhound of the Year. Joining in 1962, they have served the club for over 40 years. Martha has been club Secretary, Treasurer, and is currently the Sunshine leader. Paul continues to serve on the club board, has been president twice, and chairs the Scholarship committee. Through Paul's work, the club has provided scholarships to worthy Colorado School of Mines students for many years. Both are a fixture at club shows, helping with set-up and clean-up, plus spending countless hours manning the club table. Paul and Martha have been described as "fabulous members" by several others in the club.
Submitted by Dennis Gertenbach, Club Board Member
from Shirley Leeson
In 1995, a new recognition program was begun at the AFMS Editor's Breakfast in Boise Idaho. At that time, and each year since, editors of club newsletters have been recognized for their hard work, long hours, and dedication to the hobby.
For 2003 the following club editors were selected for inclusion in the Hall of Fame:
Rocky Mt. Federation:
South Central Federation:
And the surprise of the morning was the award to CAROLYN WEINBERGER, editor of the AFMS Newsletter. While Carolyn has already been inducted for her club bulletin and Regional Federation Newsletter, this year she was recognized for her hard work in putting out the best AFMS Newsletter to date. She accepted with grace. And wondered what the fuss was all about. Little does she know she is held in high esteem by all the editors and those who rely on her to get their information out to the clubs and directors. She is never too busy to help someone who needs her expertise - example: When the NFMS Newsletter label files crashed, she was there to help with answers and suggestions. Well deserved, Carolyn.
[Ed. Note: Thank you all. Doing three newsletters a month is truly a labor of love!]
from Kitty Starbuck, AFMS Club Publications Committee Chair
It was a pleasure to award so many certificates and trophies to our hard working club editors and authors this year in Ventura, CA. There were 129 entries in the AFMS contest representing the cream of the crop in each of the regional federation competitions. All newsletters and articles were published during the 2002 calendar year.
I want to thank our hard working judges - Diane Dare, Cecelia Duluk, Joy Bourne, Joyce Hanschu, Ruth Bailey, Phyllis George, Neil Snepp, Barbara Fenstermacher and Dolores Rose - for the many hours they spent evaluating each entry and offering good critiques so our authors and editors know how to correct mistakes and improve their work.
Trophies this year featured a slab of Calico Silver Lace Onyx, a stone native to California where the AFMS convention was held this year. My thanks to Diamond Pacific for making the material available to us.
And here are the results:
Original Adult Articles:
Advanced Adult Articles:
Junior Articles - Authors under age 12
Junior Articles - Authors Ages 12 - 17:
Poetry - Adult Authors
from Dee Holland, Endowment Fund Chair
At the recent AFMS Show and Convention in Ventura, California the drawing for a number of special items shown in the AFMS Newsletter and on the AFMS Website was held during the Awards Banquet.
Bill Alcorn, from South Central won the first drawing and received the faceted Beryl gemstone set in 14 k gold donated by Jay Bowman. Bill was in the audience and claimed his prize.
Dick Pankey from California won the second drawing and received the handmade gold chain donated by Ruth Bailey. Dick was also in the audience and claimed his prize. Betty his wife was ecstatic.
The third drawing was won by Donna Garland of Southeast, and will be delivered by 1st V.P Bill Waggner. The Wirewrapped pendant donated by Marve Starbuck of the Midwest, was Donna's prize.
The fourth drawing was won by Marve Starbuck and his prize was the Intarsia pendant donated by Delbert & Carolyn Grady of South Central Marve was there to receive his prize, which was immediately turned over to his wife Kitty.
Bonnie Glismann from the Northwest received the Belt Buckle donated by Lewis Elrod of Southeast. Bonnie was there in the audience to claim her prize and turned it over to her husband, Dick.
Harold Hoskinson of South Central won the next prize, a five strand Indian style turquoise nugget necklace and earrings, donated by Dee Holland of the Northwest. This was taken by Joyce Speed of South Central to be delivered.
The Mobile Rock & Gem Society of Mobile, AL was the winner of the channelwork flower pendant, donated by Shirley Leeson of California. Again, Bill Waggner, 1st V.P. of Southeast will deliver the pendant.
And the last prize was the very special tomahawk designed and donated by Bill Metcalf of South Central. The lucky winner was Jeff Ursillo of the Gem & Mineral Society of Palm Beach, FL. Bill Waggner, 1st V.P of Southeast took the tomahawk to deliver. We haven't heard from Bill and hope he was able to get the "weapon" through airport security.
The final prize was the Lewis and Clark Commemorative Dutch Oven. It was won by Ace Nash of Lapwai, Idaho. Dee Holland delivered it at the Northwest Federation Show in Pasco, WA the first of August.
Thanks to all who participated in making this a very successful event. The total received was $1921.
Your continued financial support is important to the many projects the Endowment Fund currently funds.
from Dee Holland & Shirley Leeson
In recognition of their many years of service to the AFMS Endowment Fund, Betty Leach, Dorothy & Glenn Lee were given special Endowment Fund Committee Lifetime Membership Plaques at the Awards Banquet held in Ventura, CA.
Many people were unaware of the extraordinary efforts these people made over many, many years to the success of the Endowment Fund. While many enjoyed the shows and programs and other events, Betty, Dorothy & Glenn and the late Charley Leach donated hours of work to make each Endowment Fund Drawing a success. Sitting in the Endowment Fund booth was time-consuming and many times frustrating but the rewards were spectacular. Have you ever, personally, tried to extract a "buck" from a rockhound? It ain't easy.... But they were masters of backpocket manipulations. If they didn't charm you out of a buck, they shamed you till you gave in. All in good humor and fun. Over the years they were able to obtain many spectacular prizes to be raffled off, and that brought interest to the Fund.
The Mineral Charts were an additional way they were able to make the Fund grow. Donated items at the booth were sold to the public and a love of rockhounding was shared at the same time.
If you have enjoyed the years of award programs each regional federation enjoys, you can thank these special people. The Endowment Fund helps to make copies of the winning programs for the regional federations. It is now funding the new Judging Training Class at Wildacres. It also supplies each regional federation with supplies from the central office.
This is only a small tribute to these generous and dedicated friends of the AFMS Endowment Fund.
from Bob Livingston
"2004" was first previewed at the AFMS convention in June in Ventura, California. The location is in the famous Finger Lakes area of upstate New York.
Full information about the show should be on the website by the end of September. Dates are July 7 through 11 with the show at the New York State Fairgrounds. The 500-table show will have at least 12 wholesale dealers and 55 retail dealers. Part of the line up will include kids doings as well as spectacular exhibits from several well-known museums and collectors.
Meantime start thinking about giving it a boost by showing off your prized specimens or unique creations by putting in an exhibit case; either competitive or non competitive. The host club from EFMLS, the Gem and Mineral Society of Syracuse looks forward to having you join us for a truly good time next July.
from Mike Kokinos, CFMS
Members and other groups have asked for a description of the 1976 lobby law that they can give to their Board members, staff and others as they weigh the importance of electing to come under the liberal provisions of that law. Enclosed is a one-page explanation and accompanying one pager which describes a number of legislation related activities that are not considered lobbying under the 1976 law. We urge you to distribute the information broadly to your volunteer leadership, staff, affiliates and other groups that lobby or are considering lobbying.
If you want additional information, please contact any of our organizations listed below or
Basic Information About the 1976 Law Governing Lobbying by Charities.
The federal government, including Congress and the Internal Revenue Service, supports lobbying by charities. Congress sent that unambiguous message when it enacted the liberal provisions under the 1976 lobby law. The same message came from the Internal Revenue Service in regulations issued in 1990, which support both the spirit and intent of the 1976 legislation.
The 1976 law is clear regarding what constitutes lobbying by charities. Following are key points about that legislation. They apply only to charities that have "elected" to come under the 1976 law. Those that have not elected remain subject to the ambiguous "insubstantial" test, which leaves uncertain which activities of charities related to legislation constitute lobbying and how much lobbying is permitted.
The most important feature of the law is that it provides ample leeway for charities to lobby, and it protects those that elect the advantages of the 1976 rules, from the uncertainties they would be subject to if they remained under the insubstantial test. Generally, organizations that elect the 1976 lobby law may spend 20% of the first $500,000 of their annual expenditures on lobbying $100,000), 15% of the next $500,000, and so on, up to $1 million dollars a year! Equally important, there are eight critically important legislation-related activities which charities may conduct that are not considered lobbying by the IRS.
Understanding what constitutes lobbying under the 1976 law is not difficult. In general, you are lobbying when you state your position on specific legislation to legislators or other government employees who participate in the formulation of legislation, or urge your members to do so (direct lobbying). In addition, you are lobbying when you state your position on legislation to the general public and ask the general public to contact legislators or other government employees who participate in the formulation of legislation (grassroots lobbying).
The Internal Revenue Service encourages groups to elect to come under the 1976 law. The IRS has found groups that have elected are more often in compliance with the law than those that have not. Also, it is easy to elect. Just have your governing body vote to come under the provisions of the 1976 law and file the one page IRS Form 5768 with the IRS.
What Are the Main Elements of the 1976 Law?
Exclusions from Lobbying Critical to the 1976 law are the provisions declaring that many expenditures that have some relationship to public policy and legislative issues are not treated as lobbying and so are permitted without limit. For example: Contacts with executive branch employees or legislators in support of or opposition to proposed regulations are not considered lobbying. So, if your charity is trying to get a regulation changed it may contact both members of the Executive Branch as well as legislators to urge support for your position on the regulation and the action is not considered lobbying.
Lobbying by volunteers is considered a lobbying expenditure only to the extent that the charity incurs expenses associated with the volunteers' lobbying. For example, volunteers working for a charity could organize a huge rally of volunteers at the state capitol to lobby on an issue and the only expenses related to the rally paid by the charity would count as a lobbying expenditure.
A charity's communications to its members on legislation - even if it takes a position on the legislation - is not lobbying so long as the charity doesn't directly encourage its members or others to lobby. For example, a group could send out a public affairs bulletin to its members, take a position on legislation in the bulletin, and it would not count as lobbying if the charity didn't ask its members to take action on the measure.
A charity's response to written requests from a legislative body (not just a single legislator) for technical advice on pending legislation is not considered lobbying. So, if requested in writing a group could provide testimony on legislation, take a position in the testimony on that legislation, and it would not be considered lobbying. So-called self-defense activity - that is, lobbying legislators (but not the general public) on matters that may affect the organization's own existence, powers, tax exempt status, and similar matters would not be lobbying. For example, lobbying in opposition to proposals in Congress to curtail charity lobbying, or lobbying in support of a charitable tax deduction for nonitemizers, would not be a lobbying expenditure. It would become lobbying only if you asked for support from the general public. (Lobbying for programs in the organization's field, (e.g., health, welfare, environment, education, etc.) however, is not self-defense lobbying. For example, an organization that is fighting to cure cancer could not consider working for increased appropriations for cancer research to be self-defense lobbying.)
Making available the results of "nonpartisan analysis, study or research" on a legislative issue that presents a sufficiently full and fair exposition of the pertinent facts to enable the audience to form an independent opinion, would not be considered lobbying. The regulations make clear that such research and analysis need not be "neutral" or "objective" to fall within this "nonpartisan" exclusion. The exclusion is available to research and analysis that take direct positions on the merits of legislation, as long as the organization presents facts fully and fairly, makes the material generally available, and does not include a direct call to the reader to contact legislators. This exception is particularly important because many nonprofits that engage in public policy do conduct significant amounts of nonpartisan analysis, study and research on legislation.
A charity's discussion of broad social, economic and similar policy issues whose resolution would require legislation - even if specific legislation on the matter is pending - is not considered lobbying so long as the discussion does not address the merits of specific legislation. For example, a session at a charity's annual meeting regarding the importance of enacting child welfare legislation, would not be lobbying so long as the organization is not addressing merits of specific child welfare legislation pending in the legislature. Representatives of the organizations would even talk directly to legislators on the broad issue of child welfare, so long as there is no reference to specific legislation on that issue.
It's not grassroots lobbying if a charity urges the public, through the media or other means, to vote for or against a ballot initiative or referendum. (It's direct lobbying, not grassroots, because the public in this situation becomes the legislature. Lobbying the public through the media is therefore considered a direct lobbying expenditure, not a grassroots expenditure. This is an advantage because charities are permitted to spend more on direct lobbying than on grassroots lobbying.)
From the foregoing, it is very clear that there are many activities related to legislation that do not count toward lobbying expenditure limits.
Richard Pankey, CFMS Publicity/Public Relations Committee
At the November 2002 Directors' meeting in Visalia, CA, the Directors of CFMS voted to adopt the Rockhound Sticker and design as the "official" recognized symbol for rockhounding. This sticker was developed and introduced by the Publicity/Public Relations Committee at the CFMS and AFMS Shows last July. To date close to 13,000 stickers have been sold throughout the US and Canada.
We hope that all CFMS member societies will also support the Rockhound Sticker program. The Rockhound Sticker is an easy way to identify oneself to others as a rockhound. It provides an easy way to recognize other rockhounds. The sticker not only promotes and publicizes rockhounding, it is a service to rockhounds to facilitate meeting one another. The sticker is an identifier for club members as well as unaffiliated rockhounds. It lets everyone know you are interested in collecting rocks, minerals, or fossils and you are willing to discuss collecting, to share rockhounding experiences and to help other rockhounds. It tells others that you are a rockhound friend.
At the Visalia meeting a new, first time director told me that when he drove into the back parking lot at the Holiday Inn he wasn't sure if he was in the right place. But once he saw the Rockhound Sticker on several vehicles he new he was.
Many clubs have already purchased stickers to give or sell to their members. Several clubs will be using them as case favors at their shows. Now is the time to order stickers for your club so everyone can have them for the upcoming field trip season.
The stickers sell for 50 cents each for 1 to 59 stickers (minimum order - 10 stickers) or 30 cents each for quantities of 100 or more; price includes postage and handling.
Frank Mullaney, the CFMS / AFMS badge chairman is handling sales of the stickers and he will accept checks or credit cards. When ordering make check payable to: ROCKY FIVE. To order stickers, contact:
Proceeds from the sale of the stickers are donated to the AFMS and CFMS Scholarship Foundations.
Promote rockhounding. Proudly display your Rockhound Sticker.
from Carolyn Weinberger
Do you know about the National Rockhound & Lapidary Hall of Fame? It's housed in Murdo, South Dakota within the Pioneer Auto Museum and it's a very special place.
Begun in 1987 by June Culp Zeitner, one of our hobby's "national treasures", the Hall of Fame recognizes individuals who have made major contributions to the hobby in the fields of lapidary, minerals, fossils, education, and jewelry. There is also a category for honoring deceased individuals. Six people are inducted into the Hall each year and are chosen from nominations received from individuals and clubs throughout the U.S.
Those chosen for inclusion in the Hall of Fame have their photograph and a brief biography placed on a wall in the room which is shared with a portion of the Zeitner collection of gems, minerals and fossils. Some of the inductees have also donated examples of their work to the museum and these are displayed in a showcase opposite the photographs. It's a very impressive display!
Past inductees include Jay Lininger, publisher of Matrix Magazine, Fred Schaefermeyer, an AFMS past president, Olive Colhour (she made those wonderful gemstone pictures), Art Grant, Henry Graves, Louellen Montgomery, Dorothy & Glenn Lee, John Sinkankas, Harold & Erica Van Pelt, Bob Jones and Paul Desautels.
Two of the 2002 inductees are Dr. Steven Chamberlain of Syracuse University, and Helen Serras-Herman, renowned glyptographer. The remainder of the inductees will be announced in an upcoming fall issue of Lapidary Journal Magazine.
Do you know someone who you think should be recognized by the Rockhound Hall of Fame? Official nomination forms will be sent to your club shortly by Lapidary Journal, but you don't need an official form to nominate someone. Write the name, address, club and federation affiliation (if there is one), phone number and e-mail of the person you wish to nominate on a piece of paper. Then tell as fully as you can why this person should be considered for election. Write your reasons in a narrative style. Be sure to include the accomplishments of the individual, honors received if you know them. Be as complete as you can.
Nominations should be mailed to June Zeitner. at the address shown on the nomination form your club receives. Or, you can mail them to the AFMS Editor (address on page 15) and they will be forwarded to June. Those sent to the Editor should be received no later than October 1 to ensure delivery in time.
© 1998-2014 American Federation of Mineralogical